I'm a bit of a hosting junkie - I enjoy experimenting with different providers and hosting environments. Recently, I've been jumping on the cloud hosting and PaaS bandwagon. Since most cloud/PaaS providers offer free usage tiers, it doesn't cost me a dime to try them out. :Db
This pretty much sums up all of my favorites at this time. More than happy to answer questions if anyone has any. Enjoy!
MDDHosting | Reseller Hosting | currently $29.33-$71.83/mo | affiliate link
I've been with MDD for almost 2 years now, and they are currently my hosting provider of choice when I just want standard LAMP + cPanel hosting. Their servers run on LiteSpeed (virtually the same as Apache, but optimized for speed), which I've found makes a significant difference when you're running PHP-heavy scripts. Their support team is extremely knowledgeable, personable, courteous, and they've always responded to my tickets within the hour, even if it's late at night. On the rare occasion that there are server issues, or they are migrating/upgrading their servers, I always get a prompt email from them + frequent updates on Twitter. Most importantly (imo), they are really big on security and being transparent about their servers and resource allocation.
The only thing that irks me is the offer countdown on their front page. The timer always just resets, and the offer stays the same... |D Also, they are a bit on the pricey side, but you get what you pay for~
A Small Orange | Shared Hosting | currently $2.92-$30/mo
ASO is one of the few hosting companies owned by EIG that I would currently recommend. Their shared hosting plans are very affordable considering that they use 100% SSD disks. I highly suggest their "Tiny" and "Small" shared plans to anyone looking for their first paid hosting provider.
 - ASO also now supports Node.js on their shared hosting accounts, which I think is pretty awesome and forward-thinking of them. Node is perfect for creating real-time, interactive web apps. If that's something you're interested in, ASO's shared plans are an affordable place to start.
Digital Ocean | Cloud Hosting | currently starting at $5/mo | referral link
DO is a fairly new cloud hosting provider, but they're making waves (no pun intended) with their extremely affordable plans starting at just $5 a month (or $0.015 an hour, if you're not running your droplet for the full month). While I haven't used them to host any "real" projects yet, I've played around with creating "droplets" and setting up different development environments, and so far, it's a dream. They have 1-click setup for LAMP and WordPress, among others. And for anything that doesn't have a 1-click-install option? Then they've probably got a tutorial for it - you can learn to set up anything from Ruby on Rails to even Node.js.
If you've ever wanted to venture outside of your shared LAMP/cPanel hosting comfort zone, DO offers an excellent opportunity to do so without burning a hole in your wallet. It's essentially the same level of control as you would have on a VPS or dedicated server - but for just $5! <3
They're constantly running promotions on Twitter and Facebook - look out for those if you're interested in trying them out.
Google App Engine | Cloud Hosting | Pricing based on usage
Google App Engine recently opened up their PHP runtime for open preview, so it's still being worked on and some things might change, but it's essentially stable and ready to be used by the masses. This means that anyone running their sites on a LAMP environment (virtually everyone here, I assume) can move their site over to Google and get it hosted nearly for free (if you stay within the free usage tier, and plus file storage fees). Yes, free hosting on Google's infrastructure! It's almost as good as it sounds, but you do need to be able to set up and install everything yourself. Their docs and customer support are pretty useless in that regard, unfortunately. So unless you have experience running and configuring your own servers, or you just enjoy playing with and learning these kinds of things, you probably wouldn't want to move to App Engine.
For what it is, it's an extremely great service at an excellent price. You get 28 free instance hours a day, which is enough to run one server instance completely free. At that price-point, even if you don't end up using it, it's a great opportunity to learn something new.
AppFog | PaaS Hosting | Free - $720/mo
Heroku | PaaS Hosting | Pricing based on resource allotment
Pagoda Box | PaaS Hosting | Pricing based on resource allotment
I didn't get to use any these for very long, but I liked what I saw. They each have a good variety of SDKs to choose from, simple and straightforward setup and deployment, and a free plan or usage tier that you can use to try out their services. The servers are completely managed - you essentially just have to pick an SDK and start building. Hard to beat that! And for most basic needs, you'll probably find that you don't need anything beyond their free offerings.
edit - Adding WebFaction~
WebFaction | Shared Hosting | currently starting at $8.50/mo | affiliate link
I recently gave WebFaction a try - it's an excellent option for anyone looking for VPS-like flexibility, but not quite ready/funded enough to go that route. They have support for a LOT of different languages and applications (several of which have a 1-click install option) which most shared hosts don't offer. However, if you're used to cPanel doing everything for you, you may feel a bit lost, as you're expected to use SSH for pretty much anything beyond app, ftp, and database setup (ie. to set up cron jobs). But it's a fair trade-off in my opinion - you really have /much/ more flexibility with your apps (and honestly command line is the way to go if you're leaning towards being a developer).
To sort-of account for the lack of cPanel hand-holding, they do have excellent documentation, and their support team is very friendly, responsive, and more than willing to help out if you get stuck. Oh and they have an API. I love that.